The bentonite layer that surrounds and protects the canisters in a nuclear waste repository deep down in rock experiences a complex coupled heat and moisture flow process. The released heat from the canister will cause an initial drying. The water in the rock will on the other hand cause successive saturation of the bentonite from the outer rock side. These processes will interact. Key questions are the degree of initial drying and the time it takes to saturate the bentonite under various scenarios.
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- 1Product Description
Bentonite is a highly colloidal clay mineral which gets its name from the place where its presence and usages were first discovered – Fort Benton, America. The multiple properties of bentonite namely hydration, swelling, water absorption, viscosity, thixotropy make it a multi-application product for diverse industries. Primarily two varieties of bentonite are available – sodium bentonite (high swelling, gelling and thermal durability) and calcium bentonite (more commonly available worldwide but with less swelling).
- 2Benefits of using Bentonite
- Removing toxins from the body
- Treating oily skin and acne
- Detoxifying the skin
- Treating poison ivy
- 3Chemical Properties
S.No Oxides% Q’a Al
Ein Al Bayda Ein Al Bayda2 Yamaniyya 3 1 Na2O 0.13 1.12 0.01-4.99 0.49-3.26 2 MgO 3.47 10.75 1.06-12.8 0.91-3.92 3 Al2O3 20.08 10.7 2.02-21.76 12.95-17.33 4 SiO2 55.67 50.8 7.94-52.68 45.61-62.09 5 K2O 2.45 2.75 0.19-3.8 0.1-2.23
- 4Physical Properties
S.No Parameters Q’a Al Azraq1 Ein Al Bayda1 1 Specific gravity 2.64-2.72 2.49-2.58 2 Smectite % 64.93 63.56 3 CEC Meq/100g 0.07- 0.10 0.07- 0.10 4 Bulk Density (gm/cc) 20.56-87.00 18.28-53.18 4 Oil absorption% by wt 60.70-87.20 70.0-74.0
Bentonite has high swelling properties along with good viscosity and liquid limit. These properties are highly valued in most of the industrial applications. Sodium bentonite is well suited as a binder in the preparation of pellets, and in foundry and oil – well drilling mud. Bentonite also acts as a suspending agent in oil – well drilling fluids. Bentonite exhibits good green strength along with high hot and dry strength which helps in preventing moulds from breaking or cracking during the pouring or cooling processs in the foundry industry. Owing to high green strength resulting from its property to absorb and then release moisture, bentonite is used in iron ore pelletisation. Sodium-based bentonite of 75 mm size finds suitability in iron ore pelletisation for bonding by user industries. Bentonite has also remarkable colloidal and waterproofing properties. Bentonite gels are used as a carrier for a number of cosmetic preparations, toothpastes, creams, etc. Bentonite is also used in chemical, rubber, insecticide & pesticide industries and in civil construction works. Bentonite in the form of fine powder free from dirt and other foreign matter and of least swelling property is used in ceramic industry.
- 6Health and Safety
International Program on Chemical Safety/Commission of the European Union; International Chemical Safety Card on Bentonite International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC) are data sheets intended to provide essential safety and health information on chemicals in a clear and concise way.
SUPERBOND TM is unique blending of Sodium and Calcium based Bentonite. SUPERBOND TM is extraordinary solution for foundry sand binding and it can also withstand higher temperature since it contain more percentages of metallic.The foundry is able to maintain active clay levels with reduced additions of bentonite since SUPERBOND TM is having high Mont values. It also offers more superior thermal durability
Iron Ore Pelletising
SUPERBOND™-IOP is unique Sodium based Bentonite. SUPERBONDTM-IOP is extraordinary solution for Iron Ore Pellet binding and it can also withstand higher temperature since it contains more percentages of metal. The grade is also having higher natural percentage of Iron which is ideal in isolating ore pellets with the maximum percentages of Iron.
Well Drilling remains one of the largest volume market for Bentonite.The important characteristics of this type of Bentonite are Mud yield, Gel Strength and wall building properties. The specification of drilling mud is given as per American Petroleum Institute ( API ) and as per Oil Companies Materials Association (OCMA).