What is Flyash

Fly ash is the fine ash produced in the furnaces of coal-fired power stations. The ash is a by-product from the combustion of pulverised coal at very high temperatures and pressures producing steam required for power generation.

This fine or ‘fly’ ash is a mineral rich substance that cools and solidifies into rounded, glassy particles in the flue gases, which are carried upwards and captured by either electrostatic or mechanical precipitators.

The Fly ash particles are extremely fine and resemble cement in appearance. They are also chemically similar to cement, containing the same basic oxides in differing proportions and mineralogy. Most importantly, fly ash demonstrates pozzolanic properties in concrete i.e. the fly ash has the ability to react with the lime released by hydrating Portland cement to produce extremely robust and durable cementitious hydrates.

  1. 1
    Product Description

    • AK-POZZO® Fly ash is specially selected at the various plants operated by AK TECH located at various thermal power plants across India. Two grades of AK-POZZO® Fly ash are commercially available namely AK-POZZO-12® and AK-POZZO-25®.
    • AK-POZZO-12® has a higher fineness with a typical value of 12% material retained on the 45μ sieve.
    • AK-POZZO-25® being slightly coarser, has a typical fineness value of 25% retained on the 45μ sieve.
    • AK-POZZO® Fly ash is a siliceous fly ash as it consists of the oxides from silica, aluminium and iron and exhibits a calcium oxide content of < 10%. Many countries categorize siliceous fly ash as Class F (Class V in EN 197-1).
      Both products comply fully with the stringent requirements of internationally recognized Fly ash standards including ASTM 618, BS EN 450 Category ‘N’ & IS 3812.

  2. 2
    How does AK-POZZO® Fly Ash work?

    There are three main properties of AK-POZZO® Fly ash, which give the product its unique characteristics;

    • A spherical particle shape
    • Very fine particle size
    • Pozzolanic reactivity

    The spherical shape of AK-POZZO® Fly ash improves workability when blended with cement particles which are angular in shape. This property improves compaction and greater densities are achieved with AK-POZZO® Fly ash concrete. The extremely fine AK-POZZO® particles displace water between the cement particles and act as hydration sites for the cement, stimulating early strength development and improving the pore structure. This physical reaction is called the ‘fine filler effect’.

    The silicon dioxide(SiO2) in AK-POZZO® Fly ash forms stable cementitious compounds in reaction with the calcium hydroxide released during the hydration of cement. In the presence of water, this pozzolanic reaction can continue for a considerable period of time and results in the higher long term strengths and exceptional durability of AK-POZZO® Fly ash concrete.

  3. 3
    Benefits of using AK-POZZO® Fly Ash

    The benefits and advantages of using fly ash in concrete can be summarised as follows:

    • The reduced water content of the concrete mix improves long term strength performance and durability.
    • Reduces permeability,which reduces shrinkage,creep and gives greater resistance to chloride ingress and sulphate attack.
    • Minimises the risk of alkali silica reaction I Reduces the temperature rise in thick sections i.e. heat of hydration.
    • Makes more cohesive concrete that has a reduced rate of bleeding,is easier to compact,gives better pumping properties and improves the finish of the off shutter concrete.

  4. 4
    Chemical Properties

    S.No Parameters AK-POZZO-12® AK-POZZO-25®
    1 Silica (SiO2) (%) 48 – 53 48 – 53
    2 Alumina(AI2O3) (%) 16 – 20 16 – 20
    3 Ferric Oxide(Fe2O3) (%) 09 – 13 09 – 13
    4 Calcium Oxide(CaO) (%) 07 – 10 07 – 10
    5 Magnesium Oxide (Mgo) (%) 03 – 06 03 – 06
    6 Titanium dioxide (Tio2) (%) 16 – 20 16 – 20
    7 Sodium Oxide (Na2O) (%) 1.0 – 2.0 1.0 – 2.0
    8 Potassium superoxide(K2O)(%) 0.5 – 1.5 0.5 – 1.5
    9 Sulphur Tri Oxide(SO3) (%) 0.3 – 0.8 0.3 – 0.8
    10 Loss Of Ignition(%) 0.25 – 0.75 0.25 – 0.75

  5. 5
    Physical Properties

    S.No Parameters AK-POZZO-12® AK-POZZO-25®
    1 Fineness residue retained
    o +45 micron(%)
    4 – 10 15 – 25
    2 Water content (%) 95 105
    3 Moisture Content (%) 0.07- 0.10 0.07- 0.10
    4 Bulk Density (gm/cc) 1.0 – 1.5 1.0 – 1.5

  6. 6
    Addition rates and Compatibility

    For general-purpose applications, concrete containing between 25% and 40% AK-POZZO® Fly ash is most suitable. The exact proportion of AK-POZZO® Fly ash used in the mix for optimum results will depend on other factors such as Cement content, Placing method & Strength requirements. Where long term durability is an essential requirement, a minimum AK-POZZO® Fly ash content of at least 30%(or higher?) by weight of the cementitious content is often specified. Normal admixtures can be used in concrete containing AK-POZZO® Fly ash though some manufacturers offer admixtures that are designed specifically to work with the finer particle size of Fly ash.

  7. 7
    Health and Safety

    AK-POZZO® Fly ash is not considered to be hazardous to health; however it should be handled in accordance with good occupational hygiene and safety practices. High concentrations of dust may cause irritation.It is recommended that Personal Protective Equipment including eye protection, hand and skin protection and dust masks are worn when handling this product.For further information see the Health and Safety information sheet for AK-POZZO® Fly ash.



Zeolites are crystalline solids structures made of silicon, aluminium and oxygen that form a framework with cavities and channels inside where cations, water and/or small molecules may reside.They are often also referred to as molecular sieves. Because of their unique porous properties, zeolites are used now in a variety of applications.


Geoploymers are formed by an alkaline liquid reacting with the silicon (Si) and the aluminium (Al) in a source material of geological origin or in by-product materials such as low-calcium fly ash to produce binders. Because the chemical reaction that takes place in this case is a polymerisation process, the term “geopolymer” was coined to represent these binders.


Fly ash has proved useful in the amelioration of poor quality agricultural land and the rehabilitation of mine land. The success depends on the composition of the soil. Fly ash has great potential in agriculture due to its efficacy inmodification of soil health and crop performance.The high concentration of elements (K, Na, Zn, Ca, Mg and Fe) in fly ash increases the yield of many agricultural crops.

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